Whether you are seeking custody or facing a custody dispute, understanding the legal framework and procedures involved is essential. In this guide, we will cover the various aspects of child custody in Georgia, including what it means to have custody, how to obtain custody, and important factors considered by the courts. Child custody can be one of the most emotional areas of law. What is more important than custody of a child? O.C.G.A. § 19-9-3 and related sections of the law as well as caselaw provide the legal foundations for child custody.
What is Child Custody?
Child custody refers to the legal rights and responsibilities of parents regarding the care, upbringing, and well-being of their children. It determines where the child will live, who will make important decisions on their behalf, and how visitation or parenting time will be arranged and apportioned. In Georgia, the courts through Superior Court judges sitting in every county of the state, make custody decisions based on the best interests of the child, prioritizing the child's physical and emotional welfare above all else.
Types of Child Custody in Georgia
- Legal Custody: Legal custody determines which parent has the authority to make important decisions regarding the child's education, healthcare, religious upbringing, and general welfare. It can be awarded solely to one parent (sole legal custody) or shared between both parents (joint legal custody).
- Physical Custody: Physical custody refers to where the child resides, and the time spent with each parent. It can be awarded solely to one parent (sole physical custody) or shared between both parents (joint physical custody).
How to Obtain Child Custody in Georgia
Obtaining child custody in Georgia involves several steps, which may vary depending on the circumstances. Here is a general overview:
a. Filing for Custody: To initiate the custody process, you will need to file a petition with the appropriate court. The petition should outline your desired custody arrangement and explain why it is in the child's best interests. Enough detail should be included so that a judge or a law clerk will understand why you are asking for custody.
b. Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution: In many cases, the court may require parents to attend mediation sessions to encourage cooperative decision-making and resolve conflicts outside of court. The court wants to save time and encourage agreement.
c. Custody Evaluation: In complex or contested custody cases, the court may order a custody evaluation. A neutral professional will assess the child's living arrangements, interview the parents and other relevant parties, and provide recommendations to the court regarding custody. The court can appoint a guardian ad litem to help in the process.
d. Court Proceedings and Trial: If an agreement cannot be reached through mediation or negotiation, the case will proceed to a court hearing. Both parties will present their arguments and evidence, and the court will make a custody determination based on the best interests of the child.
Factors Considered in Child Custody Cases
When determining child custody, Georgia courts consider several factors to ensure the child's best interests are met. These factors may include:
a. Best Interests of the Child: The primary consideration is the child's physical and emotional well-being, safety, and stability. This is the paramount consideration.
b. Parent-Child Bond and Relationship: The court assesses as best it can the existing bond between each parent and the child, including the child's emotional attachment, love, and affection for each parent.
c. Parental Fitness and Ability to Provide: The court examines each parent's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment, including their mental and physical health, financial stability, and support network.
d. Stability and Continuity: The court assesses the stability and continuity of the child's current living arrangements, school, community, and relationships.
e. Child's Preference (if applicable): In some cases, the court may consider the child's preference, particularly if the child is mature enough to express reasoned and intelligent opinions.
f. Domestic Violence or Substance Abuse: Evidence of domestic violence, substance abuse issues, or any other factors that could potentially harm the child's well-being may significantly impact custody decisions. A violent parent is not who the court would entrust with the custody of a child. The same is true for a drug addicted parent or an alcoholic parent whose addiction places the child in danger.
Modification and Enforcement of Child Custody Orders
Child custody orders are not set in stone and can be modified or enforced under certain circumstances.
a. Modifying Custody Orders: If there is a substantial change in circumstances or it is in the child's best interests, either parent can request a modification of the custody order. Common reasons for modification include relocation, changes in the parents' work schedules, or significant changes in the child's needs or preferences. If you parent becomes violent or suffers from drug or alcohol issues a modification may be granted.
b. Enforcing Custody Orders: If one parent fails to comply with the custody order, the other parent can seek enforcement through the court. Legal remedies may include fines, modifications of visitation schedules, or even contempt of court charges for repeated violations. A judge can sentence a violator to jail.
Parental Rights and Responsibilities
Understanding the different aspects of parental rights and responsibilities can help you navigate child custody issues effectively.
a. Legal Custody: Legal custody grants a parent the authority to make important decisions on behalf of the child, such as education, healthcare, religious upbringing, and extracurricular activities.
b. Physical Custody: Physical custody determines where the child resides and how much time is spent with each parent. It can be sole or joint, depending on the custody arrangement.
c. Visitation and Parenting Time: If one parent has sole physical custody, the other parent typically receives visitation rights or parenting time to maintain a meaningful relationship with the child. The visitation schedule can be established by the court or agreed upon by the parents. It would be quite uncommon for a parent to fail to get any visitation at all. Supervised visitation can be ordered when a parent is not trusted to act properly with a child.
d. Decision-Making Authority: In joint legal custody, both parents have an equal say in making important decisions for the child. Cooperation and effective communication between parents are crucial in this arrangement. Without good communication, this arrangement will not work out well.
Grandparent and Third-Party Custody Rights
Georgia now recognizes that grandparents and certain third parties may seek custody or visitation rights under specific circumstances. However, the rights of grandparents and third parties are generally secondary to the rights of biological or adoptive parents. But that should not stop a relative form seeking some sort of custody or visitation when a child they love is involved.
Hiring a Child Custody Lawyer in Georgia
Navigating child custody matters can be overwhelming, and having an experienced child custody lawyer by your side can provide invaluable guidance and representation. It can make all the difference for whether you win or lose. The Sherman Law Group is committed to advocating for the best interests of children and assisting parents and others in achieving favorable custody outcomes.
Child custody cases in Georgia require careful consideration of various factors and adherence to legal procedures. By understanding the types of custody, the process of obtaining custody, and the factors considered by the courts, you can make informed decisions to protect your child's well-being. Remember, each case is unique, and consulting with an experienced family law attorney is essential to ensure the best possible outcome for you and your child.